ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LOCAL ORTHOSIPHON ARISTATUS LEAVES
Received 2023-07-12; Accepted 2023-09-07; Published 2023-09-15
The interest in drug discovery from plant sources has been the focus for many researchers due to the increasing emergence of drug-resistant microbial strains. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of Orthosiphon aristatus leaves and their phytochemical compounds against gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Propionibacterium acnes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of Orthosiphon aristatus leaves was determined by using well diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The extract showed inhibition against S. epidermidis, S. mutans, P. acnes and K. pneumoniae, ranging from 9 mm to 30 mm. E. coli was not inhibited. The MIC and MBC values for S. mutans were 7.81 mg/ml, S. epidermidis were 125 mg/ml, P. acnes were 3.91 mg/ml, and K. pneumoniae were 62.5 mg/ml. Data analysis showed that S. mutans, P. acnes, and K. pneumoniae had no significant mean difference between the plant extract and the corresponding antibiotic, while S. epidermidis showed statistical significance. Qualitative phytochemical tests showed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, and terpenoids in the extract. The findings indicate Orthosiphon aristatus as a promising antimicrobial agent.
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